Redating the exodus bimson what is the three day rule of dating
We need not debate which of the two should be identified with Pithom. But it is also plausible to suggest that there were other Semites among the new settlers, as well as the ancestors of the later Hyksos.The important point is this- The same Syro-Palestinian (Middle Bronze II) culture which marks the early period at the site of Raamses has now been found at both these candidates for Pithom as well.15 At Tell el-Maskhuta (the site favored for Pithom by the majority of scholars), the early remains include probable grain-storage facilities, perhaps explaining the term “store-cities.” Archaeologists and Egyptologists have traditionally held a different view of this Syro-Palestinian culture in the Eastern Delta. There is indeed evidence from Tell el-Maskhuta that some Semitic settlers were treated with brutality by the Hyksos.
But according to the archaeologists—and the site has been very extensively excavated—there was no city at Jericho in 1230–1220 B. Pritchard, Gibeon’s excavator, commented that the anomalies encountered at Jericho, Ai and Gibeon “suggest that we have reached an impasse on the question of supporting the traditional view of the conquest with archaeological undergirding.”4 But this is just the beginning.They associate it with the forerunners of the Hyksos, a Semitic people from somewhere in the Syria-Palestine region who took over the throne of Egypt around 1650 B. The MB II finds at Tell el-Maskhuta include the tomb of a woman and her dog, both killed by blows from a type of battle-axe used by the Hyksos.We suggest that these other Semitic settlers were (or at least included) the Israelites, whom the Hyksos treated as slaves—perhaps following an example already set by the Egyptians.16 In short, the reference to “Pithom and Raamses” in Exodus 1-11 cannot be used to date the Exodus to the 13th century B. Rather, the archaeological evidence makes best sense if Exodus 1-11 refers to the beginning of the Israelites’ enslavement (in about the 18th century B.In 1 Kings 6-1, we are told that Solomon began building the Temple in the fourth year of his reign and that this was 480 years after the Exodus. If we allow 40 years for the desert wanderings before the Israelite conquest of Canaan, we arrive at a date of about 1410–1400 B. Jephthah, by common agreement, can be dated to about 1100 B. This would place Israelite settlement east of the Jordan 300 years earlier—about 1400 B. Admittedly, the figure of 480 years used in 1 Kings and the 300 years used in Judges sound like approximations, round figures rather than precise calculations.Solomon’s reign can be dated with considerable confidence to about 971–931 B. The figure 480 is perhaps especially suspect; it is 12 times 40, a frequently used figure in the Bible.